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Research and studies

Veganic productivity research

The Productivity of Vegan-Organic Farming: Measuring small-scale vegan-organic farming against large-scale conventional and organic practices

By James Videle. Published in 2018 by the Humane Party.

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Read an article summarizing key findings.

Research about veganic farmers

Veganic Agriculture in the United States: Opportunities for Research, Outreach, and Education

By Alisha Utter (University of Vermont) and Mona Seymour (Loyola Marymount University). Published in 2021 in The Journal of Extension, 59(3), Article 8.

A growing number of farmers are excluding animal inputs from crop production, an approach commonly referred to as veganic or stockfree organic agriculture. This research-based article discusses the soil health and fertility strategies reported by a sample of U.S. veganic farmers. These approaches may be relevant beyond the veganic community to farmers seeking innovative methods for produce safety and nutrient cycling. Agricultural outreach professionals (AOPs), including Extension personnel, play a critical role in supporting veganic practices by serving as cross-pollinators between farmers and research institutions. Thus, the article endeavors to expand AOP familiarity with veganic practices and benefits.

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Veganic farming in the United States: farmer perceptions, motivations, and experiences

By Mona Seymour (Loyola Marymount University) and Alisha Utter (University of Vermont). Published in 2021 in Agriculture and Human Values volume 38, pages 1139–1159.

“Veganic agriculture, often described as farming that is free of synthetic and animal-based inputs, represents an alternative to chemical-based industrial agriculture and the prevailing alternative, organic agriculture, respectively. Despite the promise of veganic methods in diverse realms such as food safety, environmental sustainability, and animal liberation, it has a small literature base.

This article draws primarily on interviews conducted in 2018 with 25 veganic farmers from 19 farms in the United States to establish some baseline empirical research on this farming community. Its qualitative perspectives illuminate farmer perceptions of and experiences with veganic growing, including definitions, knowledge acquisition, values, and challenges. Results highlight a lack of agreement about the meaning of veganic agriculture in terms of allowable inputs and scope.

Participants have drawn on a wide array of veganic and non-veganic resources to ascend their veganic production learning curves, also relying on experimentation and trial-and-error. Their farming is motivated by a diversity of real and perceived benefits, most notably consistency with veganism, food safety advantages, and plant and soil health benefits. Veganic product sourcing and the dearth of veganic agriculture-specific resources present considerable challenges to farmers.

The article briefly discusses possibilities for developing veganic agriculture in the United States, such as through a US-based certification system and farmers’ associations, based on considerations of the trajectory of the US organic farming movement and veganic developments in Europe. Finally, the article suggests the importance of expanded research into soil health and fertility in plant-based systems to support practicing and potential veganic farmers.”

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Stockfree-organic research

Diversity in Food Systems: The Case of Stockfree Organic.

By Taylor, Richard, Piergiuseppe Morone, and Largo S. Giovanni Maggiore. 2005

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Stockless systems research

Management & sustainability of stockless organic arable and horticultural systems

By Preston, Keith, Management & sustainability of stockless organic arable and horticultural systems, 2008

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Legume species and management for stockless organic farming

By Cormack, W. F., Shepherd, M., & Wilson, D. W.,  Biological agriculture & horticulture, 2003

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The long-term agronomic performance of organic stockless rotations

By Welsh, J. P., Philipps, L., & Cormack, W. F., In Proceedings of the UK Organic Research, 2002

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Testing a stockless arable organic rotation on a fertile soil. In Designing and Testing Crop Rotations for Organic Farming: Conference Proceedings

Cormack, W. F., Designing and Testing Crop Rotations for Organic Farming: Conference Proceedings., 1999

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Legume breaks in stockless organic farming rotations: nitrogen accumulation and influence on the following crops

Schmidt, H., Philipps, L., Welsh, J. P., & Fragstein, P. V., Biological Agriculture & Horticulture, 1999

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Historic veganic research

The transformation of soils by surface cultivation and veganic manuring

By Kenneth D. O’brien, Journal of the royal society of arts, 1964

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Manure-related risks

Antibiotic Uptake by Plants from Soil Fertilized with Animal Manure

By K. Kumar, S. C. Gupta, S. K. Baidoo, Y. Chander, and C. J. Rosen, Journal of Environmental Quality, 2005

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Uptake of Pharmaceuticals Influences Plant Development and Affects Nutrient and Hormone Homeostases

By Laura J. Carter, Mike Williams, Christine Böttcher, and Rai S. Kookana, Environmental Science & Technology, 2015

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Persistence of the fluoroquinolone antibiotic difloxacin in soil and lacking effects on nitrogen turnover

By Rosendahl I1, Siemens J, Kindler R, Groeneweg J, Zimmermann J, Czerwinski S, Lamshöft M, Laabs V, Wilke BM, Vereecken H, Amelung W., Journal of Environmental Quality, 2012

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